Other Infections

EASL 2015: Milk Thistle May Improve Steatohepatitis, Capsaicin from Chili Peppers Helps Fibrosis


People who used silymarin, derived from the milk thistle plant, experienced a resolution of non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) and a reduction in liver fibrosis in a randomized, placebo-controlled trial, researchers reported at the European Association for the Study of the Liver (EASL) 50th International Liver Congress last month in Vienna. Another study found that dietary capsaicin, derived from chili peppers, was associated with improvement in mice with artificially induced fibrosis, the precursor to cirrhosis.

While effective new direct-acting antiviral drugs can now cure most people with hepatitis C and older therapies can suppress hepatitis B indefinitely, managing liver injury resulting from long-term infection, as well as liver damage due to other causes, remains a challenge.

A number of herbal therapies have been used to treat liver disease, with some -- such milk thistle -- being common across different regional medical traditions. Results from a global survey of people with hepatitis C presented at the Liver Congress showed that almost all respondents had tried herbal remedies either to slow liver disease progression or to ameliorate symptoms (abstract P1239).

Silymarin for NASH

Wah Kheong Chan from the University of Malaya in Kuala Lumpur and colleagues conducted a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial to evaluate silymarinfor the treatment of NASH, or liver fat accumulation and inflammation not associated with alcohol use. NASH and its less severe form, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), rival viral hepatitis and heavy alcohol consumption as a cause of cirrhosis and liver cancer in the U.S.

Silymarin, derived from the milk thistle plant Silybum marianum, has been shown to have anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anti-fibrotic properties in laboratory, animal, and human studies.

This poster presentation included 64 participants with biopsy-confirmed NASH who had completed the study at the time of the interim analysis. More than half were women and the average age was 50 years. A majority had grade 2 (moderate) steatosis and inflammation, followed by stage 1 (mild), with a small number having stage 3 (severe). The average NAFLD activity score -- which incorporates steatosis, inflammation, and swelling or "ballooning" of hepatocytes -- was 5, with two-thirds having scores of 5-8. A majority of participants had absent or mild liver fibrosis (stage F0-F1), but about one-third had advanced (F3) fibrosis.

Participants were randomly assigned to receive 700 mg silymarin 3 times daily or placebo for 48 weeks, along with counseling about lifestyle factors such as diet and weight loss. Repeat liver biopsies were performed at the end of the study.


"A significantly higher percentage of patients experienced NASH resolution and improvement in fibrosis stage after 48 weeks of treatment with silymarin compared to placebo," the researchers concluded.

Capsaicin for Fibrosis

Chronic hepatitis B or C, heavy alcohol use, and other factors can cause liver fibrosis, or accumulation of collagen and other scar tissue components. Over years or decades this can progress to cirrhosis, in which scar tissue blocks blood circulation and replaces so much functional liver tissue that vital functions are impaired. Though the process is not fully understood, hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) are known to play a key role in fibrosis development and progression.

Shanna Bitencourt from Vrije Universiteit in Brussels and colleagues evaluated the inhibitory effects of capsaicin as a dietary supplement on HSC activity in mice with artificially induced liver fibrosis.

Laboratory studies have shown that capsaicin -- the main compound that gives chili peppers their heat -- can affect the activation, proliferation, and migration of HSCs in vitro, the researchers noted as background.

In this study male Balb/c mice were given capsaicin as a dietary supplement mixed in their chow (0.01%). Some mice were subject to bile duct ligation to simulate cholestasis or bile accumulation, which can lead to fibrosis. Others were exposed to carbon tetrachloride, a chemical sometimes used as a cleaning agent and fire extinguisher that is toxic to the liver. The researchers dissected the mouse livers and isolated and analyzed their HSCs. In addition, freshly isolated HSCs were cultured and exposed to capsaicin for 7 days in vitro.

Capsaicin partially improved liver damage in the bile duct ligation mice. Dissected livers showed decreased collagen deposition and fewer areas of necrosis (dead tissue), while isolated HSCs showed down-regulation of markers associated with fibrosis.

Capsaicin inhibited further progression of liver injury in mice with ongoing exposure to carbon tetrachloride. Mice that were fed capsaicin prior to toxin exposure were protected against development of liver injury and up-regulation of fibrosis activation markers. However, capsaicin did not reduce toxin-induced fibrosis that was already established before mice received the supplement. Capsaicin treatment also inhibited autophagic flux, or self-degradation of cells.

"Dietary capsaicin decreases the severity of liver injury" in mouse bile duct ligation and "hinders fibrogenesis" in the ligation and carbon tetrachloride-induced liver fibrosis models, the researchers summarized.

"Collectively, these results support that daily dietary consumption of capsaicin has beneficial effects on liver injury, especially on HSC activation," they concluded.



WK Chan, NR Nik Mustapha, S Mahadeva, et al. Silymarin for the treatment of non-alcoholic steatohepatitis: interim analysis of a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. 2015 International Liver Congress: 50th Annual Meeting of the European Association for the Study of the Liver (EASL). Vienna, April 22-26, 2015. Abstract LP12.

S Bitencourt, L Stradiot, S Verhulst, et al. Inhibitory effect of dietary capsaicin on liver fibrosis in mice. 2015 International Liver Congress: 50th Annual Meeting of the European Association for the Study of the Liver (EASL). Vienna, April 22-26, 2015. Abstract P0446.

C Gore, M Peck-Radosavljevic, and B Taylor. Results of a global survey of hepatitis C patients: the impact of infection, the experience of
the patient pathway and the barriers to, and significance of, a cure. 2015 International Liver Congress: 50th Annual Meeting of the European Association for the Study of the Liver (EASL). Vienna, April 22-26, 2015. Abstract P1293.

Other Sources

EASL. Herbal remedy derived from milk thistle demonstrates efficacy in non-alcoholic steatohepatitis. Press release. April 23, 2015.

EASL. Chilli peppers hold promise of preventing liver damage and progression. Press release. April 23, 2015.